Subsurface Land Drainage Design and Development:

• The Government of Egypt gave priority to improve the productivity of the cultivated lands through the application of a complete drainage system. Open drains did not solve the problem of water-logging and salinity completely so Subsurface drainage was necessary as a solution to control the groundwater table and soil salinity. DRI carries out applied research that leads to cost-effective subsurface drainage systems which serves to solve major problems faced by the twining sister of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Egyptian Public Authority of Drainage Projects (EPADP).
• In the area of design, the adequate design criteria for each region in Egypt where drainage projects are planned are proposed and verified on the basis of intensive field investigation and data collection. In the area of technology, DRI gives a great deal of attention to drainage materials and machinery as well as the auxiliary structures. The Institute introduces modern technologies to the Egyptian drainage practices after testing and, in many cases, after adaptation to suit the local conditions.
• As results of DRI applied research, plastic tubing replaced pipes and pre-wrapped synthetic envelope materials are gradually replacing gravel envelope. The Institute investigates new cost-effective techniques and evaluates their suitability. Trenchless technology has been successfully tested in areas with unstable soils as well as in clayey soils. Pipe connections, manholes, flushing structures and other drainage system components have been subject to research to improve their quality and method of construction. Quality control methods and equipment are always subject to consideration to assure quality of constructed systems. Maintenance equipment and procedures are another area of interest for research. Drainage of special conditions such as areas subject to artesian pressure, unstable soils and areas with calcareous soil have been studied by DRI.
• Testing of new design concepts and technologies were carried out in pilot areas implemented by DRI and EPADP. The pilot areas are equipped with instrumentation that provide data about the climate, discharges, water levels salinities and soil moisture.